Ruth West, The Woman Who Transformed Pam Grier To Foxy Brown

Ruth West was the premier designer for some of the top performers of the 1970s. Famous names like the Ann-Margret and the Jackson family would step in and out of her Hollywood storefront to be fitted in eye-catching looks for on and off the stage. 

West built this reputation by crafting wares that were not only stylish but functional. “… When you get something tailored … and the sleeves start coming off onstage- well. Ruthie’s stuff always stays together,” commented Billy Griffin to Ebony Magazine in 1977.  Aside from clothing performers in glittering garbs, she also designed the iconic looks for Pam Grier in the 1974 film, Foxy Brown.

West learned how to craft her first stitch by quilting with her grandmother as a child. As she grew into a young woman, she built her eye for design in a still-life class at Washington University in St. Louis. This combination of form and handiwork led to West finding sewing work for a local designer. There, she created multiple best-selling looks for the brand. 

Although West’s talent was a financial benefit for the designer, her boss encouraged her to venture out to California and create a name of her own. She took the advice and left for the Golden State. As in St. Louis, the California-based West found herself crafting designs under a designer’s name. She knew her worth, so she quit her job and established herself as an independent designer. This meant taking a deep pay cut and building clientele from scratch. 

Amid this career change, West bought a charity raffle ticket with her last $15. That philanthropic spending proved to be a fruitful purchase. She had the winning ticket, a trip to Hawaii. A friend bought the trip from West and she used that money to make a down payment for a storefront that would become the International Costume Company. Within her first year, she made $41,000 and started her path in becoming a designer to the stars.  

To see the original photographs and profile of Ruth West, check out the May 1977 edition of Ebony Magazine.   

Yva, A Pioneer of the Fashion Nude


Before Helmut Newton was snapping his signature erotica, he was once an assistant to German fashion photographer Yva (1900-1942).

The uniquely named photographer was born Else Neulander in Berlin to a working-class Jewish family. Twenty-five years later she became Yva and opened a photography studio in the fashionable Kurfürstendamm district. Through a modernist perspective, she captured surrealist compositions of stylish women and artistic nudes. Yva’s work was so eye-catching that Berlin’s fashion elite sought out her photographs for their publications and advertisements.

Dancer Tatjana Barbakoff, 1929

Yva’s career ended after the political rise of the Nazis. In 1942, she and her husband were arrested and sent to a death camp. A set of stolperstein (stepping stone) have been placed in front of their former home at Schlüterstraße #45 to honor the couple’s legacy.

For more on Yva, check out Yva: Photographies 1925-1938 by Elisabeth Moortgat and Marion Beckers or Fashioning Jews: Clothing, Culture, and Commerce by Leonard J. Greenspoon.

Dorothy Donegan’s Sequined Statements

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Dorothy Donegan (1922-1998) was an American pianist and singer who specialized in jazz, blues, and classical music. She is best known for her animated performances on the stride piano and owning Club Morocco in Los Angeles.

Just like her lively piano playing, Donegan’s on-stage attire was attention-grabbing. She wore curve-hugging, intricately decorated gowns that mirrored the fashions worn by Hollywood starlets. She didn’t skimp on her beauty routine either. Her hair was styled in curly or voluminous bobs that were often accented with a flower or turban.

Born in Chicago, Donegan performed in jazz clubs at a young age. During these shows, she developed her stage attire. “My mother would get me a pretty good dress, you know. Then, you could get a whole outfit for $15,” the singer said to Jeannie Cheatham for the Smithsonian Jazz Oral History Program. “The shoes were $2 or $3. We’d go to Rothschild’s. I didn’t know a thing about Neiman Marcus, ‘needless markups.” 

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In 1945 Donegan received a call from Hollywood. “They (MGM)  paid our way there and gave me I think $3000 a week … Gene Rodgers and I played against each other. He was a very good pianist. Cab (Calloway) was directing and shaking his hair.” 

An example of her style is seen in a 1944 performance with Calloway and his band in the musical comedy film, “Sensations of 1945.” Donegan wears a long-sleeved gown with a deep V-neck and slightly squared shoulders. The white coloring of the dress is contrasted by gold sequins dotted at the neckline and in spirals around her wrists, which accentuates her piano playing.

Despite being a famous musician, Donegan often challenged sexism in the male-dominated jazz industry. “There shouldn’t be a separate role for women and a separate role for men. They either can perform or they can’t.”

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Although this may have shaped public opinion of her as difficult or overbearing, the musician knew her talents and worth. Her persistence was mentioned in a February 9, 1961 edition of Jet. The passage reads, “Jazz pianist Dorothy Donegan and her retort to the New York Roundtable Club owner after he suggested ordering some elevated shoes for her to compensate for the high ceiling Dorothy complained about: “How about some elevated money?”

As she entered her later years, Donegan combined her signature razzle-dazzle with streetwear. When she performed at the White House in 1993, she wore “a silver coat and a Chanel copy baseball hat,” and “a bugle beaded jet top and a black sequined skirt” with a bangle bracelet around her left wrist.

When not performing in the 1990s, Donegan received a National Endowment of the Arts “American Jazz Masters” fellowship (1992) and an honorary doctorate from Roosevelt University (1994). In 1997 she was diagnosed with colon cancer and passed away at the age of 76 in 1998.

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Throughout her career, Donegan faced hardships for being an opinionated woman in a male-dominated industry. Instead of giving up, she continued to shine with the help of some sparkle.  

The Glamorous Style of Candy Darling

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Candy Darling was a Warhol Superstar who led a life of parties, men, and disappointments, but the one constant in her life was style. Even on her deathbed, Darling stayed true to who she was, a Hollywood glamour puss.

Born in Long Island in 1944, Darling spent her childhood idolizing Hollywood. In this world, she learned about glamour, which exuded from the fabulous women on her screen. From then and there, she wanted to become a famous actress.

Darling’s love for cinema may have also been a form of escapism from her less than charming childhood. Darling was an only child of divorced parents who was often bullied; a group of boys once attempted to lynch her when she was 16, which caused her to drop out of high school.

Although she was born a male named Jimmy, she identified as a female. It was only her outside appearance that appeared masculine. In order to embrace, and be accepted, for her true self was a difficult task for anyone in the conservative suburbs of Long Island during the 1940s and 1950s.

Darling often escaped this world for the excitement of local gay bars or the Manhattan LGBTQIA scene. There she could be herself, dressed to the nines as a woman. It was during one of these trips that Darling’s mother spotted her in public and confronted her when she arrived home, who was then back in her boy drag. Darling instructed her mother to sit at the kitchen table while she went to change into her evening attire. Her mother later said to a friend, “I knew then… that I couldn’t stop Jimmy. Candy was just too beautiful and talented.”

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Darling’s acting aspirations took off when she met Andy Warhol. Attracted to her outgoing personality and beauty, Warhol saw her potential as a star. How could he not? She was the living embodiment of Marilyn Monroe, Joan Bennet, and Jean Harlow all in one.

As a Warhol Superstar, Darling’s personal aesthetic was a combination of Hollywood nostalgia and 1970s bohemian. She blended prints with furs and lace, and because of her tall frame, she never veered into tacky territory. She accessorized these looks with platinum hair, patterned headscarves, and kohl-rimmed eyes.

At the young age of 29, Darling died of lymphoma. Her funeral was a star-studded event with Gloria Swanson saluting the coffin. While in the hospital, Peter Hujar created the famous photo series “Candy Darling on her Deathbed,” which documented the actress in the hospital. Although extremely sick, she still looked like a movie star.

Candy was both brave and brilliant by just being herself. She once said, “There is one thing I must tell you because I just found it to be a truth …You must always be yourself no matter what the price. It is the highest form of morality.”

To learn more about Candy Darling, check out the 2010 documentary, Beautiful Darling.

Jayne Wrightsman’s Dazzling Style

Metropolitan Museum of Art


American arts benefactor and philanthropist Jayne Wrightsman passed away on April 20, 2019. An often private presence on the New York social scene, Jayne and her husband Charles Bierer Wrightsman helped develop the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s French Decorative Arts wing (Wrightsman Galleries) through extremely generous donations (Vanamee, 2019). They have been dubbed the museum’s “most important benefactors (Baetjer, 2019).

Another element of the former model’s persona that dazzled American society was her personal style and in particular, her jewelry collection. “What really struck me about her taste was how educated it was while not being overly academic,” said the head of Sotheby’s Magnificent Jewels Auctions in New York Catharine Becket to Vanity Fair (Vanamee, 2019). Some examples of her jewelry collection can be seen in a 2012 Sotheby’s auction that garnered millions of dollars. Included were collections of pearls, diamonds, a 17th-century emerald rosary, and a mid-19th-century diamond bow brooch worn by King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II (Vanamee, 2019; “Magnificent Jewels from the Collection of Mrs. Charles Wrightsman,” 2012). These jewels display Jayne’s taste for dazzling pieces in classic and referential shapes. “Everything was beautiful, but she had broad cultural interests,” says Becket (Vanamee, 2019).

Like the fine and decorative art that the Wrightsmans’ donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, a portion of Jayne’s wardrobe has been given to the museum’s Costume Institute. Included is a collection of gowns, evening separates, and accessories that showcase her signature style. “Her clothes, which were incredibly well-tailored, served as a blank canvas on which to hang jewels,” said Becket (Vanamee, 2019).

During Jayne’s early beginnings in the 1960s social scene, she wore fashionable gowns that blended classic shapes with ornate details. As she got older, her clothing continued to incorporate eye-catching detail, but with a streamlined silhouette.

A famous example of her personal style is seen in a 1966 Cecil Beaton photograph of Jayne at her Fifth Avenue home (Bowles, 2019). She is documented wearing a 1965 Balenciaga quarter-sleeved gown that is accessorized with feathers and a silk ribbon belt. The photograph has been so inspiring that it was the basis for a 2010 Steven Meisel photoshoot featuring model Amber Valletta (Wintour) and is featured in the Costume Institute’s exhibition, “Camp: Notes on Fashion” (Bowles, 2019).

Jayne’s signature style is also seen in a photograph of her wearing a white Middle Eastern-inspired Balenciaga coat while posing in front of a Georges de la Tour painting entitled “The Penitent Magdalen” (Vanamee, 2019). Both in this photograph and the Beaton piece, Jayne is wearing clothing that blends fashion trends with cultural influences. She would continue this theme in her wardrobe years later with a 2000 ensemble made with a colorful ikat print and simple green trousers. As with her taste in jewelry, she chose pieces that initiated conversation and thought.

To learn more about Jayne Wrightsman and her contribution to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, visit the Charles and Jayne Wrightsman and The Metropolitan Museum of Art page.


Baetjer, Katharine. “Jayne Wrightsman (1919–2019).” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 23 April 2019,

Bowles, Hamish. “Hamish Bowles Remembers Jayne Wrightsman, Esteemed Arts Connoisseur and Legendary Hostess.” Vogue. 24 April 2019,

“Magnificent Jewels from the Collection of Mrs. Charles Wrightsman.” Sotheby’s. 05 December 2012,

Talley, Andre Leon. “Talking Fashion: Couture.” Vogue Oct 01 1989: 480. ProQuest. Web. 22 Apr. 2019 .

Talley, Andre Leon. “Talking Fashion: Vogue’s Spring Spree.” Vogue Apr 01 1990: 414,414, 415, 416. ProQuest. Web. 22 Apr. 2019.

Vanamee, Norman. “Jayne Wrightsman’s Jewelry Collection Was the Stuff of Legend.” Town & Country. 25 April 2019,

Wintour, Anna. “Editor’s Letter: Letter from the Editor: All the Right Roles.” Vogue May 01 2010: 78,78, 84, 86. ProQuest. Web. 22 Apr. 2019 .